Unlike the library’s collection of online resources, information retrieved using search engines (such as Google) has not been evaluated and/or organized by librarians or humans for that matter. Anyone can publish on the Web without passing the content through an editor. Pages might be written by an expert on the topic, a journalist, a disgruntled consumer or even a child. There are no standards to ensure accuracy. Web resources are not permanent. Some well-maintained sites are updated with very current information, but other sites may become quickly dated or disappear altogether without much if any notice.
If you are using a Web page as a possible research citation, you should especially consider the following criteria:
Authority: It is often difficult to determine who the author or sponsor of a Web page is, much less their credentials or qualifications.
- Is the author identified? If so, are his/her credentials/qualifications listed?
- Does the web page have a sponsor? If so, is the sponsor reputable?
- Does the web page provide information about the author or the sponsor? Is there contact information for the author? (e.g., e-mail address, mailing address, phone number)?
- Does the URL contain a .edu, .gov domain, for example, http://library.ucsc.edu.
Purpose: It is important to determine the goals of the webpage. You can check to see if these are clearly stated in a mission statement or an “About Us” page. This can help you determine if the page is intended to inform, explain, or persuade.
- What is the purpose or motive for the site? (e.g., educational, commercial, entertainment, promotional)
- Is the information biased or is the author presenting more than one side of the argument?
- Is the page designed to sway opinion? Is the purpose of the page clearly identified?
- Is there a sponsor or advertising on the page? If so, does this influence the information? Is the site trying to sell you something? How easy is it to differentiate advertisement from content?
Currency: The effectiveness of a web page can sometimes be lessened if it becomes out-of-date. If the web page relies on information such as hyperlinks, directory, or timely information, etc. it should be updated and revised as the information changes.
- Are dates provided for when the information was written or when the page was last modified or updated?
- Are the links (if any) up-to-date?
Coverage: Web resources are often presented in a different context than print resources, making it difficult to determine the extent of coverage.
- What topics are covered?
- How in-depth does the information go?
- Does the page offer information not found elsewhere?
Starting Your Research by University of California Santa Cruz, University Library is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Some content has been modified to suit the curricular and research needs of Yale-NUS College. All changes are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.